Insect Hotels: A Refuge or a Fad?

If you are a gardener by hobby and a nature enthusiast by heart, chances are that you are already familiar with the concept of insect hotels (also known as bee hotels). Offering a sanctuary to beneficial insects, especially pollinators, insect hotels are considered to be the urban solution to declining population of beneficial insects in human environments due to habitat loss, pollution and abuse of pesticides. Insects provide many benefits to the ecosystem through pollination, nutrient cycle, and also as food source for birds.

Countless gardening stores and home furnishing stores sell insect hotels. Numerous blogs and websites have step-by-step manuals on how to build one yourself. All units are aesthetically pleasing which motivates well-intentioned buyers into adopting the concept. However, these insect hotels are often badly designed and they offer unsuitable home to the target insects. The warning sign of such designs is the unnecessary use of pine cones, glued snail shells, wood shavings and clear plastic tubes. Too many off-shelf insect hotels or build-your-own websites do not come with clear guide on maintenance, which is very important in ensuring the survival of the insects we intend to host.


Large insect hotels (aptly called insect condominiums) using wooden pallets are becoming very popular as individual or community gardening projects, sometimes to include non-insects such as frogs, toads and hedgehogs. In contrast, natural insect habitats occur as small separate nests, and large insect hotels pose risk of disease and parasitism to the insects inhabiting in high density inside. In fact, Rosita Moenen [1] observed that increasing number of badly-designed artificial nesting sites contributed to higher loss of (solitary) bees by parasitism.

Parasitism happens when kleptoparasites lay their eggs in tubes or cells occupied by bee larvae. Their larvae will hatch, consume the stored pollen and kill the bee larvae inside. Examples are parasitic wasps Melittobia acasta and Coelopencyrtus sp., and parasitic fly (Cacoxenus indigator) that attack red mason bees [1]. Insect hotels (especially large ones) make it very susceptible to parasitism. [1][2]. When not managed, the parasites will end up spreading to the rest of the insect hotels and will continue on for following seasons. In similar note, mould brings diseases to insects. It grows when moisture condenses and gets trapped in plastic materials [3] used in insect hotels as tubes and blocks. Lack of good roof/shelter on insect hotels, risking constant exposure to rain also contributes to mould growth.

The key solutions are correct designs, maintenance and nurturing environment.

While it seems on the surface that the insect hotels are more of a disadvantage and less of a sanctuary to the inhabitants, the concept is not a write-off. Everyone, from retailers to gardeners, is responsible to practise due diligence to ensure that these structures are designed and managed to minimise negative effects [2]. The key solutions are correct designs, maintenance and nurturing environment.

Here is the right approach to insect hotels:

  1. Insect hotel or insect refuge? Start by thinking which type of insect you wish to host. For example, in the Netherlands, [4] only three types of bees are tube nesters, namely red mason bees (Osmia sp), leafcutter bees (Megachile sp) and bell bees (Chelostoma sp). These bees occupy only small tubes between 2 mm to 10 mm in diameter. For majority that are ground nesters such as bumblebees, mining bees, plasterer bees (also known as silk bees in Dutch) and many types of beneficial wasps, an insect refuge is a more effective approach instead.


  1. Be realistic – small is better: Assess your area where you plan to set up your insect hotel or refuge. Think small and have multiple units housing one species rather than a single large one that attempts to host an entire zoo, requiring potentially conflicting environments. For example, hosting frogs and toads require humid environment with partial shade, while bee hotels need to be dry and in full sun. After you gain experience, you can build and create a different unit for another species.


  1. Choose responsible design: There are a number of good guides online written by entomologists and wild bee experts. Marc Carlton [3] and Werner David [5] have written extensively on right designs for bee hotels, in English and German respectively. For non-bee hotels suitable for lady bugs, lace wings and non-migrating butterflies, Melanie von Orlow[6] has written a book with detailed manuals, available in Dutch and German.


  1. Build your own, build it right: Sourcing your own materials gives you peace of mind that your insect hotel is made of natural, untreated wood and without chemicals such as varnish, paint and wood protectant that will repel insects. To promote sustainability, consider using recycled or natural materials from your garden. If tubes are drilled into blocks, tubes should be smooth without splinters. Good insect hotels should be built sturdy with solid back and roof/shelter to protect from rain.


  1. Install it well: For example, bee hotels [3] must be positioned in full sun, facing south east or south, at least a metre off the ground, with no vegetation in front of it obscuring the entrances to the tunnels. It must also be fixed securely to prevent shaking and swaying from wind.


  1. Maintain and clean: This is the most overlooked part of having insect hotel. Taking care of insect hotel is just as important as building one. For example, bee hotels [3] should be inspected at the end of summer to remove and clean dead cells. This will prevent mould and mites that would multiply on the dead bees or larvae. Some experts recommend bringing occupied insect hotel into cool dry area such as garden shed during winter to protect the overwintering inhabitants from wind and rain.[3] Without timely maintenance and clean-up, a once-occupied insect hotel may not attract a new batch next season.


  1. Replace when it is time: Insect hotels can degrade naturally after two or more years because the material used is untreated. Change the nesting blocks or parts every two years to avoid build-up of mould, mites and parasites overtime.


Tips to make your garden an insect refuge:

  1. Create sustainable nature: To encourage insects, especially pollinators, grow beneficial plants that that provide nectar and pollen. Choose native species [6][7] such as Lysimachia and Campanula flowers to promote natural biodiversity and avoid non-native plants.


  1. An overly-manicured garden is not a refuge: Some non-migrating butterflies such as Papilio machaon overwinter as pupae attached to plants, so refrain over-trimming during autumn and spring [6]. Look out for ground nests of mining bees, bumblebees and beneficial wasps (German wasps and common wasps) before mowing or mulching your garden. It is easier to protect existing ground nests than to artificially create one.


  1. Limit or no use of pesticides: Using pesticides (such as insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) will be counter-effective as it not only repels away or kill beneficial insects already living in your garden, it also disrupts the natural balance of a local ecosystem. Practise good housekeeping and maintenance so that you will never need to rely on pesticides in the first place. If such need arises, seek environment-friendly remedies or consult professionals instead.


Creating space for insects can be a very rewarding experience and it will teach you, your family and your community about natural diversity and sustainability. Make sure your next project becomes a refuge and not a fad. Your little friends and Mother Nature will thank you for it.


© Jo-Lynn Teh-Weisenburger, Entomologist


Jo-Lynn Teh-Weisenburger is an entomologist based in the Hague, the Netherlands. While her specialisation is on tropical insects that affect public health and agriculture, Jo-Lynn’s passion is to help people understand insects. When she is not scrutinising European insects and books about European insects, Jo-Lynn enjoys exploring recipes, yoga moves and foreign cities. Find her on LinkedIn:



Special thanks to Marc Carlton ( for his generous insight on this subject. His wealth of knowledge and experience on wild bees in UK and West Europe gave an impetus to many of references listed below.

(This article also made a guest appearance in WWF Amsterdam & The Hague Expat Team blog.)


  1. Moenen, R. (2012). De broedparasiet Cacoxenus indagator (Drosophilidae) en de parasitoïden Melittobia acasta (Eulophidae) en Coelopencyrtus sp. (Encyrtidae) bij solitaire bijen in kunstmatige nestgelegenheid. Entomologische Berichten, 1-2, 63-70. Retrieved September 8, 2017, from
  2. Macivor, J. S., & Packer, L. (2015). ‘Bee Hotels’ as Tools for Native Pollinator Conservation: A Premature Verdict? Plos One, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122126
  3. Carlton, M. (2015, November 13). How to Make and Manage a Bee Hotel: Instructions that Really Work. Retrieved September 07, 2017, from
  4. Koel, H. (n.d.). Dutch Bees and their relations – Survey of solitary and social living bees (Apidea s.l.) in The Netherlands and Flanders. Retrieved September 07, 2017, from
  5. David, W. (n.d.). Schautafeln Nisthilfen (Insektenhotels) u. Wildbienen. Retrieved September 13, 2017, from
  6. Von Orlow, M. (2014). Bouw Je Eigen Insecten Hotel: 30 Eenvoudig Zelf Te Bouwen Nestkasten (G. Meesters, Trans.). Utrecht: Kosmos Uitgevers.
  7. Koel, B. H. (n.d.). Insectenplanten, wilde bijen en hun relaties – Overzicht van waardevolle planten voor solitaire en sociale bijen (Apidea s.l.). Retrieved September 08, 2017, from

Images sources:

  1. Bee hotel comparison by David Werner (
  2. Red mason bee (Osmia rufa), photo by Saxifraga – Pieter van Breugel (
  3. Large leafcutter bee (Megachile willughbiella), photo by Saxifraga – Pieter van Breugel (
  4. Bell bee (Chelostoma rapunculi), photo by Saxifraga – Pieter van Breugel (
  5. Recommended bee hotel design by David Werner (
  6. Yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris), photo by Saxifraga – Willem van Kruijsbergen (
  7. Rapunzel bells (Campanula rapunculus), photo by Saxifraga – Bart Vastenhouw (
  8. Common carder bee (Bombus pascuorum), photo by Saxifraga – Peter Meininger (

54 thoughts on “Insect Hotels: A Refuge or a Fad?

    • Thanks for your input. Many people, despite well intentions, do not know that many websites and shops are not promoting the proper ways to do it. Keep up the good job you’re doing, and if you need further advice and tips, the experts listed in my reference are happy to help.

      Liked by 1 person

  1. Great article. I use bamboo canes and also drilled oak. They both seem to be attractive to Red Mason Bees. However I didn’t know you could have top many or that they needed cleaning out. Very interesting. Thanks.


    • Thanks. Yes, what you are using sounds good. Maintenance and prevention of parasites are just as important, and I hope more and more bee enthusiasts know and take action to protect those bees they work so hard to protect. If you need more tips and advice on those areas, you can contact the experts listed in my reference, especially Marc Carlton. Cheers.


    • Hello Wild Bee, first of all, my apologies to you (and especially to Mr Paul Westrich) for this omission. This did not turn up in my radar during my literature review and material-gathering. While I admit that this is an honest mistake on my part, this does not nullify the work of other individuals whom I have cited in my article. Now that this has gotten my attention, I am going to read and review Mr Westrich’s work for historical value (of his pioneering) and I will edit my article to reflect this based on my findings. On side note, if you happen to know any source I can check, please feel free to point me to the right direction. I thank you for bringing this to my attention.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. Great article …. very useful tips; glad to know that my own bee hotel passes muster on all points and will over-winter in the allotment shed to keep the little red mason & leaf cutter bees safe 🙂


    • Hi Ash. Thank you. Sometimes information overload can happen when individuals want to learn more but find it overwhelming to wad through tons of information that sometimes are not even accurate. It is my aim that more and more people will come to know and learn better about the right way to provide nesting aids for solitary bees and other beneficial insects.


      • Hi Jo-Lynn, I agree with everything you’ve said, I really hope you can achieve your aims. I’m in the process of kick starting a website which aims to collate info about urban ecology, particularly looking at ways we can encourage developers to more for nature. What you’ve detailed on your blog is incredibly important for consultants and developers to know, would you be happy at some stage for me to link this post via my own website? I’d obviously credit yourself and look for your feedback before uploading. The website will purely be a resource, it is in no way commercial.


      • Please feel free to cite my article as long as you include a direct link back to the original article. I wish you all the best in kick-starting your website. Cheers.


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  4. I feel that this article together with its reference list is an excellent source of up to date information for insect hotel keepers, but I’m slightly saddened that entomologist Christopher O’Toole gets no mention. My interpretation is that O’Toole pioneered the domestic garden insect hotel through many years of detailed and systematic back garden studies, culminating in his 40-page book ‘The Red Mason Bee: all you need to know’ published in 2000. Out of print, but still obtainable.


    • Hello Watson, my apologies to you (and especially to Mr O’Toole) for this omission. This did not turn up in my radar during my literature review and material-gathering, and this is an honest mistake on my part. Now that this has gotten my attention, I am going to read and review O’Toole’s work to understand his work more and I will edit my article to reflect his work. Thanks for bringing this up.


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  9. Would you completely rule out DIY kits/anything pre-made? Or are there options that are better? My mother has asked for something for her garden, and I’m living in a different country right now, so I’m not really around to build something


    • I wouldn’t rule out 100% pre-made but you really need to check to see if the insect hotels that you’re about to buy fits the recommendations I mentioned above.

      If you want to focus on bees, try Bee Brick by Green&Blue, UK. I have not been able to try it myself but how about you give it a go at your mother’s garden and share your thoughts with us about it?

      Jo Lynn


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    • Hello Jason, thanks for visiting. I personally recommend building your own insect hotels because you are able to control what you use in it. You can check out amazing resources from a UK expert Marc Carlton at However, if buying is the only option you have, make sure what you buy fits the recommendations above. I also just discovered a UK company doing Bee Bricks to be used as part of your house. The company is called Green&Blue. Give it a try and share with me!


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  20. Hi guys
    .great article .Thanks
    when is the ideal time to take on a project like this . ?
    before spring ? mid summer for winter ?
    I spend time in the northern and southern hemisphere and would love to have a go at this .
    big love


    • Hello thanks for reading. Depending on your geographical location, you can have the bee hotel ready within spring and summer time. Bees would be settled to overwinter by autumn and that’s when they would have chosen a place to do so. You can time it like that. Check with your local bee expert on the actual seasons. Enjoy!


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  30. Thanks for the wonderful read! I’m just getting started into the topic, so I have a concern I’d like to ask about. I have a couple of ant nests in my garden, the kind of red ant we have in Argentina (same one that is invading many places in Europe and North America), and I worry that they will want to settle into the hotel in order to steal other insects’ resources. Should I take special care in this case? I think I read somewhere that red ants do not offer any ecosystemic services whatsoever, as if they were parasites.


  31. The current thinking seems to be that paper tubes are the way to go for Osmia. They can be moved to a protected place when full and opened in fall to take care of any mite problems. Then the cocoons are stored until spring.


  32. ADVICE needed! I’m writing from fire-ravaged NSW in eastern Australia, though from the safety of Sydney. Many people local to the areas devastated by fires are working to help the fauna and flora affected by the fires. Could we get some advice please on how best to approach this unique situation? I’m in touch with local groups who’re making water pipe dispensers, distributing fruit and vegetables to the wild animals left in our ruined forests and bushland. What can we do for the insects and native bees? Shold we be building insect houses? I’m in touch with two groups who can distribute them, but we’re keen for expert advice in this unusual (to say the least) situation. Any Australian experts you can put me in contact with much appreciated.


  33. Can’t agree more about the importance of cleanliness. We used bee blocks and bamboo and found the bees that emerged the next year were overrun by mites. This year I’ve replaced all the aged houses with newer, small DIY houses and replaced drilled holes and bamboo with rolled cardboard and paper tubes. I’m hoping I’ll be able to open them next winter, remove the cocoons and clean them to reduce pests for the following year.


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